Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)

Home Archive v. 4, no. 8 (2017) Parveen


Vol. 4, No. 8, p. 259-264 - Dec. 31, 2017


Variability in production of extracellular enzymes by different fungi isolated from rotten pear, peach and grape fruits

Shazia Parveen ; Abdul Hamid Wani ; Mohd Yaqub Bhat ; Jahangir Abdullah Koka and Mohammad Afaan Fazili

Fifteen fungal pathogens, viz. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia fructigena, Trichothecium roseum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus niger, Coprinus psychromorbidus, Alternaria alternaria, Phytophthora palmivora, Pythium sp., Fusarium solani, Alternaria sp., Monilinia sp., Guignardia bidwellii and Rhizopus stolonifer isolated from rotted fruits were evaluted for the production of different enzyme on solid culture media. All the isolates produced enzymes on the media used, 87.67% of the isolated fungi were found to produce amylases, 80.00% of the fungi produced lipases, 73.33% produced proteases, cellulases by 66.67% and pectinases by 60.00%. The array of enzymes produced differs between different fungi. Penicillium sp., Alternaria alternata, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria sp. were found to produce all the tested enzymes on culture media. These pathogens are known to attack almost all the plants, fruits, vegetables and cause many diseases. The differences in the enzymatic production of different fungal pathogens represent their virulence and specificity in causing different fruit rot diseases.

Culture media; Extracellular enzymes; Fungal pathogens; Peach; Pear; Grape.


Full text

Ahmad, Y.; Hameed, A.; Ghaffar, A. Enzymatic activity of fungal pathogens in corn. Pakistan Journal of Botany, v. 38, p. 1305-1316, 2006. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Apr. 23, 2017.

Albersheim, P.; Jones, T. M.; English, P. D. Biochemistry of cell wall in relation to infective process. Annual Review Phytopathology, v. 7, p. 171-194, 1969.

Chakraborty, N.; Sarkar, G.M.; Lahiri, S. C. Cellulose degrading capabilities of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the intestinal fluids of the silver cricket. Environmentalist, v. 20, no. 1, p. 9-11, 2000.

Dias, D. R.; Vilela, D. M.; Silvestre, M. P. C.; Schwn, R. F. Alkaline proteases from Bacillus sp. isolated from coffee bean grown on cheese whey. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, v. 24, p. 2027-2034, 2008.

Hameed, A.; Natt, M. A.; Iqbal, M. J. The role of protease and lipase in plant pathogenesis. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, v. 6, p. 13-16, 1994.

Hankin, L.; Anagnostakis, S. L. The use of solid media for detection of enzyme production by fungi. Mycologia, v. 67, p. 597-607, 1975.

Hankin, L.; Zucker, M.; Sands, D. C. Improved solid medium for the detection and enumeration of pectolytic bacteria. Applied Microbiology, v. 22, p. 205-209, 1971. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Apr. 23, 2017.

Hoondal, G. S.; Tiwari, R. P.; Tewari, R.; Dahiya, N.; Beg, Q. K. Microbial alkaline pectinases and their industrial applications: a review. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, v. 59, no. 3/4, p. 409-418, 2002.

Karr, A. L.; Albersheim, P. Polysaccharide degrading enzymes are unable to attack plant cell walls without prior action by cell wall modifying enzyme. Plant Physiology, v. 46, p. 69-80, 1970.

Lu, W.-J.; Wang, H.-T.; Nie, Y.-F.; Wang, Z.-C.; Huang, D.-Y.; Qiu, X.Y.; Chen, J.-C. Effect of inoculating flower stalks and vegetables waste with ligno-cellulolytic microorganism on the composting process. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, v. 39, no. 5/6, p. 871-887, 2004.

Mustafa, U.; Kaur, G. Extracellular enzyme production in Metarhizium anisopliae isolates. Folia Microbiologica, v. 54, p. 499-504, 2009.

Poza, M.; Miguel, T.; Siero, C.; Vill, T. G. Characterization of a broad pH range protease of Candida caseinolytica. Journal of Applied Microbiology, v. 91, p. 916-921, 2001.

Rao, M. B.; Tanksale, A. M.; Ghatge, M. S.; Deshpand, V. V. Molecular and biotechnological aspects of microbial proteases. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, v. 62, no. 3, p. 597-635, 1998. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2017.

Sieber-Canavesi, F.; Petrini, O.; Sieber, T. N. Endphytic Leptostroma species on Picea abies, Abies alba and Abies balsamea: a cultural, biochemical and numerical study. Mycologia, v. 83, no. 1, p. 89-90, 1991.

Sierra, G. A simple method for the detection of lipolytic activity of micro-organisms and some observations on the influence of the contact between cells and fatty substrates. Antonie van Lecuwenhock, v. 23, no. 1, p. 15-22, 1957.

Sunitha, V. H.; Devi, D. N.; Srinivas, C. Extracellular enzymatic activity of endophytic fungal strains isolated from medicinal plants. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, v. 9, p. 1-9, 2013.

Teather, R. M.; Wood, P. J. Use of Congo red polysaccharide interactions in enumeration and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria from the bovine rumen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, v. 43, p. 777-780, 1982. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2017.

Turner, W. B.; Aldridge, D. C. Fungal metabolites. London: Academic Press, 1983. v. 2.

Vaithanomsat, P.; Chuichucherm, S.; Apiwatanapiwat, W. Bioethanol production from enzymatically saccharified sunflower stalks using steam explosion as pretreatment. Proceeding of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, v. 37, p. 140-143, 2009. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2017.