Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)



Home > Archive > v. 2, n. 3 (2015) > Oyekale

 

Vol. 2, No. 3, p. 91-100 - Jun. 30, 2015

 

Comparative studies on phytochemical and proximate composition of four morphologically distinct segments of the conophor seedling (Tetracarpidium conophorum Hutch. & Dalziel)



K. O. Oyekale, O. I. Odutayo, E. B. Esan, K. O. Ogunwemimo, O. A. Denton and D. T. Bolaji

Abstract
This work attempts to determine the bioactive agentsí groups probably responsible for the diverse growth characteristics and medicinal uses of Tetracarpidium conophorum Hutch. & Dalziel and to explore the global propagation of the climber plant. Consequently, four segments of the seedling namely: the dried epicotyls and foliage, the upper regenerative hypocotyl, the poorly regenerative swollen hypocotyl and the roots of the conophor seedlings were screened for ten bioactive compounds as well as their food values. Results showed that alkaloids and saponin concentrations were highest in the foliage. Terpene concentration was highest in the regenerative hypocotyl segment. Tannins, phenolic compounds and phlobatannin concentration were highest in the non-regenerative hypocotyl segment. Anthraquinone, cardiac glycoside and flavonoids concentrations were highest in the roots. Cardenolide concentration is generally low in all the segments of the conophor seedling studied. It can be inferred that the foliage can be used as an anti-venom agent based on its relatively high content of cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and phenols which are active substances responsible for detoxification of venoms in human system. There were also obvious variations in the amount of both bioactive agents and food content of the various segments of the conophor seedling. High proteins and terpene content of the regenerative hypocotyl segment are probably responsible for adventitious bud regeneration since terpenes are precursors of plant hormones.


Keywords
Seedling, Bioactive agents, Hypocotyl, Adventitious buds, Tetracarpidium conophorum, African walnut.

Full text
PDF

References
AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 15. ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1990.

Abulude, F. O.; Ogunkoya, M. O.; Afcinjagunla, Y. S. Phytochemical screening of leaves and stem of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentate). Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 9, p. 815-819, 2010.

Adams, C. F. Nutritive values of American foods in common units. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1975. (Agricultural Handbook).

Amaral, J. A.; Ekin, S. A.; Richards, S. R.; Knowles, R. Effect of selected monoterpenes on methane oxidation, denitrification and aerobic metabolism by bacteria in pure culture. Applied Environmental Microbiology, v. 64, p. 520-525, 1998.

Aniszewski, T. Alkaloids-secret of life: alkaloid chemistry, biological significance. Oxford: Elsevier, 2007.

Ayoola, G. A.; Folawewo, A. D.; Adesegun, S. A.; Abioro, O. O.; Adepoju-Bello, A. A.; Coker, H. A. Phytochemical and antioxidant screening of some plants of Apocynaceae from South West Nigeria. African Journal of Plant Science, v. 2, p. 124-128, 2008.

Bailey, J. Collins internet-linked dictionary of Botany. Harper Collins Publishers, 2006.

Baldev, K.; Harish, K. C. Biogenesis of natural product. New Dehli, Mumbai: Narosa Publishing House, 2005.

Barre, J. T.; Bowden, B. F.; Coll, J. C.; Jesus, J.; Fuente, V. E.; Janairo, G. C.; Ragasa, C. Y. A bioactive triterpene from Lantana camara. Phytochemistry, v. 45, p. 321-325, 1997.

Berthoud, H.; Neuhuber, W. L. Functional and chemical anatomy of the afferent vagal system. Autonomic Neuroscience, v. 85, p. 1-17, 2000.

Bowsher, C.; Steer, M.; Tobin, A. Plant biochemistry. New York: Garland Science, 2008.

Brinda, P.; Sasikala, E.; Furushothaman, K. Pharmacognosis studies on Merugan kilzhangu. BMEBR, v. 3, p. 84-96, 1981.

Burkill, H. M. Entry for Plukenetia conophora. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, v. 2, p. 241-250, 1985.

Dalziel, J. M. The useful plants of West tropical Africa. Crown agents for colonies. London. British Nutrition, v. 22, p. 37-41, 1937.

Dhirya, R.; Manimegalai, K. Preliminary phytochemical screening and GC-MS Profiling of ethanoic flower extract of Calotropis gigantean Linn. (Apocynaceae). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, v. 2, n. 3, p. 28-32. 2013.

Duke, J. A. Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton: CRC press, 1985.

Dutta, A. C. Botany for degree students. 15 ed. London: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Encarta Deluxe, Microsoft Corporation. 2009.

Enujiugha, V. N. Chemical and functional characteristics of conophor nut. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, v. 2, p. 335-338, 2003.

Enujiugha, V. N.; Ayodele-Oni, O. Evaluation of nutrients and some anti-nutrients in lesser-known, underutilized oilseeds. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, v. 38, p. 525-528, 2003.

Enujiugha, V. N. Isolation and preliminary characterization of conophor nut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) lipase. African Journal of Biochemistry Research, v. 3, p. 9-12, 2009.

Fujioka, T.; Kashiwada, Y. Anti-AIDS agents. 1 l, betulinic acid and platanic acid as anti-HIV principles from Syzigium claviflorum and the anti-HIV activity of structurally related triterpenoids. Journal of Natural Products, v. 57, p. 243-247, 1994.

Gertrudes, Q. B. Phytochemical analysis and toxicity test of functional foods. 24th Annual PAASE meeting: Philippine American Bonds in Science and Technology, 2006.

Giuseppe, R.; Baratta, T. M. Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil component in two lipid model systems. Food Chemistry, v. 69, p. 167-174, 2000.

Grotewold, E. The science of flavonoids. New York: Springer Science, 2006.

Hassa, C.; Healey, T.; Waterman, P. In anthraquinones as an aromatic compounds. Phytochemistry, v. 21, p. 177-179, 1982.

Hollman, A. Plants and cardiac glycosides. British Heart Journal, v. 54, p. 258-261, 1985.

Hutchson, J.; Dalziel, J. M. Flora of West Tropical Africa. London: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, 1958.

Isawunmi, M. A. The common edible fruits of Nigeria. Part II. The Nigerian Field, v. 58, p. 157-171, 1993.

Janick, J.; Paul, R. E. The encyclopedia of fruits and nuts. Oxfordshire: CAB international, 2008.

Kjeidhal, J. New method for the determination of nitrogen in organic substances. Analytisch Cheme, v. 22, n. 1, p. 366-383, 1883.

Kolodziej, H.; Kiderlen, A. F. Antileishmanial activity and immune modulatory effects of tannins and related compounds on Leishmania parasitised RAW 264.7 cells. Phytochemistry, v. 66, p. 2056-2071, 2005.

Leverin, G.; McMatron, H. Alkaloids and glycosides. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, v. 11, p. 156-250, 1999.

Marinova, D.; Ribarova, F.; Atanassova, N. Total phenolics and total flavonoids fruits and vegetables. Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, v. 40, p. 255-260, 2005.

Mattews, R. H.; Garrison, Y. J. Food yields summarized by different stages of preparation. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook. 1975.

Mensah, J. K., Okoli, R. I., Ohaju-Obodo, J. O.; Eifediyi, K. Phytochemical, nutritional and medicinal properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 7, p. 2304-2309, 2008.

Merrill, A. L.; Watt, B. K. Energy values of foods: basis and derivation. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook, 1973.

Middleton, E. Jr.; Kandaswami, C.; Theoharides, T. C. The effect of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells, implication for inflammation, heart disease and cancer. Pharmacology, v. 52, p. 673-751, 2000.

Muller-Lissner, S. A. Adverse effects of laxatives facts and fictions. Phamacology, v. 47, p. 138-145, 1993.

Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. Lehinger: Principles of Biochemistry. 3. ed. New York: Worth Publishers, 2000.

Nielsen, S. S. Introduction to the chemical analysis of foods. New Dehli: CBS Publishing Company, 2002.

Okafor, J. C. Horticultural promising indigenous wild plant species of the Nigerian forest zone. Acta Horticulture, v. 123, p. 165-176, 1983.

Okujagu, T. F.; Etatuvie, S. O.; Nwokeke C.; Mbaoji, C.; Mohammed, Z.; Eze, I.; Jimoh, B. Medicinal plants of Nigeria: South-West Nigeria. Lagos: Nigeria Natural Medicine Development Agency, 2005.

Oluwole, S. O.; Okusanya, O. T. Dormancy and seed germination in the African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Mull. Arg). Journal of Scientific Research and Development, v. 1, p. 9-14, 1993.

Onwuka, G. I. Proximate compostion. Food analysis and instrumentation. Theory and practice. Lagos: Naphthali Prints, 2005.

Onyeike, E. N.; Osuji, O. J. Research techniques in biological and chemical sciences. London: Sprinfield Publishers, 2003.

Pandey, B. P. Economic Botany. India: S. Chand and Company, 2007.

Panichpo, K.; Waigh, R.; Waterman, P. Phytochemicals reduces the risk factors on diseases. Phytochemistry, v. 16, p. 621-623. 1997.

Polterait, O. Antioxidants and free-radical scavengers of natural origin. Current Organic Chemistry, v. 1, n. 4, p. 415-440, 1997.

Prior, R. L. Fruits and vegetable in the prevention of cellular oxidative damage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, v. 78, p. 570-578, 2003.

Roberts, M. F.; Wink, M. Alkaloids: biochemistry, ecology, and medicinal applications. New York: Springer Publisher, 1998.

Schery, R. W. Plants for man. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972.

Sell, C. A fragrant introduction to terpenoid chemistry. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003.

Singleton V. L.; Orthofer, R.; Lamuela-Raventos, R. M. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Method. Enzymol., v. 299, p. 152-178, 1999.

Siegers, C.; Hertzberg-Lottin, E., Otte, M.; Schneider, B. Anthranoid laxative abuse - a risk for colorectal cancer? Gut, v. 34, p. 1099-1011, 1993.

Tous, J.; Ferguson, L. Mediterranean fruits and Phytochemicals: Progress in new crops. ASHS press. USA. 1996.

Trease, G. E. and Evans, W. C. Pharmacognosy. 13 ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1989.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Natural Resources Conservation Service. Plant Profile for Tetracarpidium conophorum (Tetracarpidium). USDA PLANTS. March 13, 2011.

Waterman, P.; Muhammad, I. Phytochemical investigations on plants. Phytochemistry, v. 24, p. 532-534. 1985.