Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)



Home Archive v. 6, no. 14 (2019) Emiri

 

Vol. 7, No. 15, p. 19-27 - Apr. 30, 2020

 

Biochemical changes in Mucuna sloanei (ukpo) seeds induced by six pathogenic fungi and comparative analysis of the pathogenic fungi



U. N. Emiri and E. B. Enaregha

Abstract
Biochemical changes in Mucuna sloanei Fawc. & Rendle (Fabaceae) seeds induced by six pathogenic fungi and comparative analysis of the pathogenic fungi were investigated. The fungal pathogens isolated from partially rotted seeds of M. sloanei seeds include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergilus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium italicum, Alternaria altermata and Fusarium oxysporum. These fungi were used as test fungi to inoculate healthy M. sloanei seeds aseptically. The results of proximate analysis in (%w/w)/100 g of seeds inoculated with the test fungi and uninoculated (control) seeds carried out revealed that there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in moisture, ash, lipid and carbohydrate content of seeds inoculated with the test fungi, relative to uninoculated (control) seeds. While fiber and protein content decreased in fungi inoculated seeds relative to uninoculated seeds. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in mineral content evaluated. Calcium, phosphorus and sodium increased in seeds inoculated with the test fungi relative to the uninoculated, while iron, potassium and magnesium decreased in seeds inoculated with the test fungi. Phytochemical (anti-nutrient) contents (tannin, saponins, total oxalate and cynogenic glucoside) increased in the fungi inoculated seeds, relative to uninoculated seeds. Significant differences also occurred among the test fungi. Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria altermata and Penicillium italicum appeared to induce more changes in proximate and mineral composition. Penicillium italicum also recorded the highest increase in phytochemical content (tannin, saponin and total oxalate) in seeds inoculated with test fungi relative to the uninoculated (control) seeds.


Keywords
Biochemical; Mucuna sloanei; Proximate; Fungi; Phytochemical.

DOI
10.21472/bjbs(2020)071502

Full text
PDF

References
Addae-Mensah, I. Towards a rational scientific basis for herbal medicine. A. Phytochemist's two decades contribution. An inaugural lecture delivered at the University of Ghana. Lgions: Ghana University Press Accra, 1992.

Adebowale, Y. A.; Adeyemi I. A.; Oshodi A. A. Variability in the physiochemical and anti-nutritional attributes of six Mucuna species. Food Chemistry, v. 89, p. 37-48, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.084

AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis. 16. ed. Virginia: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1995.

Ataga, A. E.; Umechuruba, C. I. Biochemical changes in African yam bean seeds caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium palidareseum and Penicilium cxaliam. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, v. 4, no. 4, p. 381-384, 1997.

Bressani, R. Factors influencing nutritive value in food grain legumes mucuna compared to other grain legume. In: Flores, B. M.; Ellitta, M.; Myhrman, R.; Carew, L. B.; Carsky, R. J. (Eds.). Food and feed from mucuna: Current uses and the way forward. Tegucipalma, Honduras: CIDICCO, CIEPCA, and World Hunger Research Center, 2002. p. 164-188.

Emiri, U. N.; Enaregha, E. B. Mycoflora associated with Brachystegia eurycoma (achi) seeds and their effects on the biochemical properties of the seed. International Journal of Bioscience and Biochemistry, v. 1, no. 2, p. 14-18, 2019.

" Emiri, U. N.; Chuku E. C. Effect of boiling on the pathology and biochemical properties of Mucuna sloanei seeds. Journal of Advanced Studies in Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Sciences, v. 4, no. 4, p. 1-8, 2019.

Etim, J. U.; Ishoro, A. P.; Okay, E. N.; Akpan, J. B.; Effiong, P. F. Mycoflora associated with cocoa (Theobrema cacao) pods obtained in the field and their effects on seed nutritional content. Science Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research, v. 2, no. 12, p. 236-241, 2014.

Falaye, O. S.; Fagbohun, E. D. Effects of storage on the proximate, mineral composition and mycoflora of "Tinco" dried meat sold in Oshodi, Market Lagos State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Biological Science and Biotech, v. 1, no. 1, p. 54-58, 2012.

Graf, E.; Eaton, J. Antioxidant functions of phytic acid. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, v. 8, no. 1, p. 61-69, 1990. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(90)90146-a

Hurrel, R. F.; Reddy, M.; Cook, J. D. Inhibition of non-iron absorption in man by polyphenolic containing beverages. British Journal of Nutrition, v. 81, p. 289-295, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114599000537

Isalar, O. F.; Ataga, A. E. The effect of Fusarium oxyspirium and Macroptomina phaseolina on the proximate composition of Jatropha curcas seed a biofuel plant. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, v. 29, no. 1, p. 1-8, 2019.

Koratkar, R.; Rao, A. V. Effect of soybean saponins on azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lessons on the colon of mice. Nutrition and Cancer, v. 27, p. 206-209, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635589709514526

Ndife, J.; Bolaji, P.; Afoyabi, D.; Umezuruike, R. Production and quality evolution of cocoa products (plain cocoa powder and chocolate). American Journal of food and Nutrition, v. 3, no. 1, p. 31-38, 2013.

Nweke, C. N.; Ibiam, O. F. A. Studies on pre and post-harvest fungi associated with the soft rot of the fruit Anona muricata, and their effects on the nutrient content of the pulp. American Journal of food and Nutrition, v. 2, no. 4, p. 78-85, 2012.

Nwukwu, I. A.; Ikechi-Nwogu, C. Biochemical charges induced by the effect of six pathogenic fungi on Dialium guineense: Black velvet edible fruit. I0SR Journal of Pharmacy and Biology Sciences, v. 2, no. 4, p. 20-24, 2012. https://doi.org/10.9790/3008-0242024

Obiakor-Okeke, P. N.; Chikwendu, J. N.; Anozie, T. Effect of different processing methods on the chemical, functional and microbial properties of Mucuma sloanei seeds (ukpo). International Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, v. 3, no. 6, p. 551-559, 2014.

Ogundero, V. W. Hydrolysis of vegetable oils and triglycerides by thermotolerant and zoopathogenic species of Aspergillus from Nigeria palm produce. Mycopathogia, v. 77, p. 43-46, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00588656

Olds, R. J. A colour atlas of Microbiology. 5. ed. London: Wolf Medical Publication, 1983.

Onifade, A. K.; Atum, H. N.; Adebolu, T. T. Nutrients enrichment of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, v. 10, no. 1, p. 31-36, 2004.

Richard, S. W.; Thompson L. U. Interaction and biological effects of phytic acid. In: Dhahidi, F. (Ed.). Anti-nutrients and phytochenicals in food. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, 1997. p. 294-312. (ACS Symposium Series, no. 662).

Samson, R. J.; Hoeskstra, E. S.; Van Oorschot, C. A. N. Introduction to food borne fungi. Netherlands: Central Bureau Coorschmmel Cultures, Publisher Institute of Royal, 1981.

Shehu, K.; Aliero, A. A. Effects of purple biotech infection on the proximate and mineral contents of onion leaf. International Journal Pharmacy Science Research, v. 1, no. 2, p. 131-133, 2010.

Ueno, Y. Risk of multi-exposure to natural toxins. Mycotoxins, v. 50, p. 13-22, 2000.

Ukachukwu, S. N.; Ezeagu, I. E.; Tarawall, G.; Ikeorgu, J. E. G. Utilization of mucuna as a food. In: Flores, B. M.; Ellitta, M.; Myhrman, R.; Carew, L. B.; Carsky, R. J. (Eds.). Food and feed from mucuna: Current uses and the way forward. Tegucipalma, Honduras: CIDICCO, CIEPCA, and World Hunger Research Center, 2002. p. 180-287

Umana, E. J.; Ishoro, A. P.; Okey, E. N.; Akpan, J. B.; Effiong, P. F. Mycoflora associated with cocoa (Theobroma cacao) pods obtained in the field and their effects on seed nutritional contents. Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research, v. 2, no. 12, p. 236-241, 2014.

Waryekeche, E.; Wakassa, V.; Murreithi, J. G. Effect of germination alkaline and acid soaking and boiling on the nutritional value of mature and immature mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) beans. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, v. 1, no. 2/3, p. 183-192, 2003.

Ward, H. S.; Diener, U. K. Biochemical changes in shelled peanuts caused by fungi. Effects of Aspergillus tamarii, four species of A. glaucus group and Penicillium citrinum. Phytopathology, v. 51, p. 244-250, 1961.


ISSN 2358-2731