Vol. 6, No. 12, p. 233-241 - Apr. 30, 2019
Using the step by step models to evaluate field application uniformity of subsurface drip irrigation systems
Hiba Ghazouani , Basma Latrech , Mguidich Belhaj Amel , Boutheina M'hamdi Douh , Ghazouani Issam and Abdelhamid Boujelben
Compared to other irrigation methods, drip irrigation systems (DI) are considered one of the most efficient form of irrigation. Subsurface drip irrigation allowed reducing water losses by evaporation, runoff, and deep percolation comparing to other irrigation systems supplying water on soil surface. Field evaluation of Uniformity of water applications and its stability, however, are still a matter of controversy and deserve more investigation, since the collection of water discharged needs to excavate the soil around the emitters. Experiments carried out at the Department of Rural and Agrifood Engineering of Polytechnic University of Valencia allowed describing a methodology to assess the performance of drip irrigation through hydraulic characterizations and an emission uniformity coefficient, using the step by step models. Calculations evidenced that operating pressures on emitters ranged between 127.6 kPa and 131.7 kPa, whereas the corresponding flow rates varied from 4.00 L/h and 4.07 L/h, with an average value of 4.02 L/h. Variability in the emitters' flow rate resulted very limited due to the short length of the lateral (25.6 m). However, more attention should be paid to this for a longer field dimensions. Consequently, the value of emission uniformity coefficient was equal to 96.3%, testifying the uniform water distribution within the sub-plot.
Field uniformity; Coefficient of variation; Flow variation; Laboratory SBS.
Alizadeh, A. Principles and practices of trickle irrigation. Mashad, Iran: Ferdowsi University, 2001.
ASABE - American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Annual Meeting. 2007. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.23357
ASAE - American Society of Association Executives. Standards EP405.1 FEB03 - Design and Installation of Microirrigation Systems. St. Joseph, Michigan: ASAE, 2005.
Ayars, J. E.; Phene, C. J.; Hutmacher, R. B.; Davis, K. R. Schoneman, R. A.; Vail, S. S.; Mead, R. M. Subsurface drip irrigation of row crops: A review of 15 years of research at the Water Management Research Laboratory. Agricultural Water Management, v. 42, no. 1, p. 1-27, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(99)00025-6
Camp, C. R. Subsurface drip irrigation: A review. Transactions of the ASAE, v. 41, no. 5, p. 1353-1367, 1998. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.17309
Camp, C. R.; Sadler, E. J.; Busscher, W. J. A comparison of uniformity measure for drip irrigation systems. Transactions of the ASAE, v. 40, p. 1013-1020, 1997. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.21353
Chaves, M. M.; Santos, T. P.; Souza, C. R.; Ortuño M. F.; Rodrigues M. L.; Lopes, C. M.; Maroco, J. P.; Pereira, J. S. Deficit irrigation in grapevine improves water-use-efficiency without controlling vigour and production quality. Annals of Applied Biology, v. 150, no. 2, p. 237-252, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00123.x
Christiansen, J. E. Irrigation by sprinkling. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, no. 670, 1942.
Ghazouani, H. Using infrared thermography and simulation models for the evaluation of water and salt stress: Application to micro irrigated horticultural crops. Sousse, Tunisia: Higher Agronomic Institute of Chott Meriem, 2017. (PhD thesis).
IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC, 2007. (Synthesis report).
ISO - International Standard Organization. ISO 9261:2004(E) - Agricultural irrigation equipment-emitters and emitting pipes: Specification and test methods. Geneva: ISO, 2004.
Karmeli, D.; Keller, J. Trickle irrigation design. Glendora, California: Rain Bird Sprinkler Manufacturing Corp., 1975.
Kruse, E. G. Describing irrigation efficiency and uniformity. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division, v. 104, no. 1, p. 35-41, 1978.
Madramootoo, C. A.; Fyles, H. Irrigation in the context of today's global food crisis. Irrigation and Drainage, v. 59, p. 40-52, 2010.
Provenzano, G.; Pumo, D. Experimental analysis of local pressure losses for microirrigation laterals. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, v. 130, no. 4, p. 318-324, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2004)130:4(318)
Sadler, E. J.; Camp, C. R.; Busscher, W. J. Emitter flow rate changes caused by excavating subsurface microirrigation tubing. Proceedering of the 5th Internatoinal Microirrigation Congress, St. Joseph, Michigan, p. 763-768, 1995.
Schultz, H. R. Climate change and viticulture: A European perspective on climatology, carbon dioxide, and UV-B effects. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, v. 6, no. 1, p. 2-12, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0238.2000.tb00156.x
Solomon, K. H. Manufacturing variation of emitters in trickle irrigation systems. Transaction of the ASAE, v. 22, no. 5, p. 1034-1038, 1979. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.35150
Wu, I.-P.; Gitlin, H. M. The manufacturer's coefficient of variation of emitter flow for drip irrigation. Manoa: University of Hawaii, 1979. (U.S.D.A. Cooperating: 1-3).