Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)

Home Archive v. 6, no. 12 (2019) Ologundudu


Vol. 6, No. 12, p. 149-160 - Apr. 30, 2019


Bioaccumulation potential and health risk assessment of heavy metals in Corchorus olitorius L. (Malvaceae) and Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae) obtained from a selected dump site in Akure, Nigeria

Foluso Ologundudu , Adegbite Tobi and Omotola Fopeyemi

Heavy metal contamination of polluted site has become a recurring decimal globally posing a threat to human life and biodiversity. This study was carried out to investigate the bioaccumulation potential and health risk assessment associated with the consumption of two indigenous vegetables Corchorus olitorius L. (Malvaceae) and Amaranthus hybridus (Amaranthaceae) in Akure. Initial pre soil analysis showed that the heavy metal concentration were above the safe limit as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). The heavy metals investigated include Cr, Ni, Cd, Fe and Pb for their bioaccumulation factor to provide baseline data regarding environmental safety and suitability of the vegetables for human consumption. Translocation factor, Daily Intake of Metal (DIM), Health Risk Index (HRI) and Oral Refrence Dose (RFD) were calculated following standard methods. This study concludes that different vegetables accumulate and translocate variable amount of heavy metals from the soil into their tissues. Hence, it is not advisable to consume vegetable samples collected from this site based on the permissible limits as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO).

Bioaccumulation; Biodiversity; Environmental safety; Health risk index; Translocation.


Full text

Agbenin, J. O.; Danko, M.; Welp, G. Soil, vegetable compositional relationships of eight potentially toxic metals in urban garden fields from Northern Nigeria. Journal of the Science Food and Agriculture, v. 89, no. 1, p. 49-54, 2009.

Antonious, D. L.; Kochhar, G. K. Fall-out of lead and uptake by crops. Journal of Atmospheric Environment, v. 17, p. 693-706, 2009.

Ashraf, M. H.; Raper, T. Enhancing food chain integrity: quality assurance mechanisms for air pollution impacts on fruit and vegetable system. Final Technical Report II submitted to Department of International Development, UK, 2000.

Bagdatioglu, D.; Aksoy, A. Heavy metal levels in vegetation in Turkey are within safe limits for Cu, Zn, Ni and exceeded for Cd and Pb. Journal of Food Quality, v. 29, p. 252-265, 2010.

Bonifas, M. S.; Shaker, A.; Khaliq, M. A. Deposition of heavy metals on green leafy vegetables sold on road sides of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 75, p. 1020-1027, 2005.

Bouma T. J.; Nelson K. L. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerized analysis of root length and diameter. Plant and Soil, v. 218, p. 185-196, 2000.

Guerra, G. K.; Avci, H. Heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with waste waters in Gaziantep, Turkey: A review of causes and potential for human health risks. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, v. 22, no. 1, p. 146-151, 2012.

Gupta, D. R.; Ashraf, S. D. The effects of growing bean diseases and pests. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, v. 78, p. 12-18, 2010.

Gupta, N.; Khan, D. K.; Santra, S. C. An assessment of heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 80, no. 2, p. 115-118, 2008.

Honguchi, R.; Oguma, E.; Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Machida, M. Dietary exposure to cadmium at close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake does not affect renal function among female Japanese farmers. Environmental Research, v. 95, no. 1, p. 20-31, 2004.

Ikeda, M.; Zhang, Z. W.; Shimbo, S.; Watanabe, T.; Nakatsuka, H.; Moon, C. S. Urban population exposure to lead and cadmium in East and South-East Asia. Science of the Total Environment, v.249, p. 373-384, 2010.

Lacatusu, G. P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B. G.; Dorward-King, E. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, v. 19, no. 3, p. 600-607, 1996.

Luo, W. H.; Zhao, J. Z.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Söderlund, L.; Liu, G. H. Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environment International, v. 31, no. 6, p. 805-812, 2011.

Mengel, T. Control of development in Chenopodium alnum L. by shade light. The effect of light quantity and light quality. New Phytologist, v. 88, p. 239-248, 1987.

Mohammad, I.; Horst, W. J. Effect of aluminium on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and peroxidase activities in root tips of soybean (Glycine max). Physiologia Plantarum, v. 83, p. 463-468, 2007.

Mohammed, M.; Rajani, S.; Mishra, A.; Rai, J. S. P. Utilization of okra gum for treatment of tannery effluent. International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, v. 52, no. 11/12, p. 1049-1057, 2003.

Morgan, K. L.; Smith, J. R. Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 66, no. 2, p. 258-266, 1981.

Oliver, G. H. Soil and plant factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals by plants. Environmental Health Perspectives, v. 27, p. 149-159, 1997.

Ologundudu, A.; Adelusi, A. A.; Akinwale, R. O. Effect of salt stress on germination and growth parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Notulae Scientia Biologicae, v. 6, no. 2, p. 237-243, 2014.

Rattan, R. K.; Datta, S. P.; Chhonkar, P. K.; Suribabu, K. Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater-a case study. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, v. 109, no. 310-322, 2005.

Rusan, M. J. M.; Hinnawi, S.; Rousan, L. Long term effect of wastewater irrigation of forage crops on soil and plant quality parameters. Desalination, v. 215, no. 1/3, p. 143-152, 2007.

Singh, G. H.; Kumar, D. M. Impact of coal mine dump contaminated soils on elemental uptake by Spinacia oleracea (spinach). Journal of Environmental Science and Health, v. 41, p. 297-307, 2006.

Thomas, E. J.; Raper, P. B. Biological processes in drinking water treatment. Journal - American Water Works Association, v. 80, no. 8, p. 82-93, 1983.

Trumbo, P.; Yates, A. A.; Schlicker, S.; Poos, M. Dietary reference intakes: Vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, v. 101, no. 3, p. 294-301, 2001.

USEPA - United State Environmental Protection Agency. Region 9. Preliminary remediation goals. 2006. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Aug. 07, 2012.

Volpe, H.; Chandrappa, G. T. Impact of heavy metal contamination of Bellandur Lake on soil and cultivated vegetation. Current Science, v. 91, p. 622-627, 2009.

WHO - World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Health criteria and other supporting information. Geneva: WHO, 1996.

Wilson, A. H.; Pyatt, R. D. Heavy metal accumulations of 24 asparagus bean cultivars grown in soil contaminated with Cd alone and with multiple metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 55, p. 1045-1052, 2007.

Zaidi, R. D.; Agrawal, M. Contaminated irrigation water and food safety for the sub-urban poor: Appropriate measures for monitoring and control. London, U.K.: Department of International Development, 2005.

Zaidi, S.; Satpati, S.; Nayek, S.; Garai, D. Effect of wastewater irrigation on vegetables in relation to bioaccumulation of heavy metals and biochemical changes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, v. 165, no. 1/4, p.169-177, 2005.

Zheljazkav, G.; Maduri, S. Heavy metals causing toxicity in animals and fishes. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences, v. 12, no. 2, p. 17-23, 2006.

Zhuang, N. S.; Kamala, C. T.; Raj, D. S. S. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 69, no. 3, p. 513-524, 2009.

Zhuang, P.; McBride, M. B.; Xia, H.; Li, N.; Li, Z. Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabao Shanmine, South China. Science of the Total Environment, v. 407, no. 5, p. 1551-1561, 2013.