Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)

Home Archive v. 5, no. 9 (2018) Leite


Vol. 5, No. 9, p. 133-141 - Apr. 30, 2018


Activity period of Southern house wren Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) on edges of Atlantic Forest fragments in João Pessoa (State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil)

Daniel Silva Lula Leite , Natan Diego Alves de Freitas , Wilson Marques de Oliveira Junior and Anna Carolina Nogueira Borzani

Southern house wren Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) is widely distributed in Brazil, occurring on the edges of forests and urban areas, considerable a passeriform usually found in antropized landscape. Birds use vocal signs in diverse activities during the circadian cycle (eg.: in reproduction, territorial defense, alert of predators and competitors, individual recognition, etc), employing vocal signs under energetic balance for development of diary activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diary activity period of T. musculus through their vocalizations. The sampling were made during two days in edges of Atlantic Forest fragments in João Pessoa, State of Paraíba, Brazil. Using the method of playback, vocal response of Southern house wren was measured in six periods for each day: H1 (5 h-7 h), H2 (7 h-9 h), H3 (9 h-11 h), H4 (11 h-13 h), H5 (13 h-15 h) and H6 (15 h-17 h). Differences among the periods was tested through of Kruskall-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni's corrections. In order to separate the periods groups, was applied Cluster test and non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. Were registered 2,421 vocalizations, which 2,229 in morning (H1 to H3) and 122 (H4 to H6) in the afternoon period. Results indicated there were differences among the diary activities period of T. musculus (p = 0.0008171), with early hours of morning (H1 and H2) did not differ between each other (p = 0.183), however differing from the others. The H3 and H6 periods also not differ between each other (p = 0.784), but differing significantly from H4 and H5, that did not record no one vocalization (p = 1). Cluster analyses support these results, clustering: Group 1 (H1 and H2); Group 2 (H4 and H5) and Group 3 (H3 and H6). The periods with the highest frequencies of vocal sings (Group 1) showed the most favorable conditions to vocalize, be they microclimatic (better sound transmission due lowest wind intensity and air turbulence) or behaviors (females attraction, territorial invasion, etc.). On the other hand, non-recording of vocalizations of Group 2 suggest unfavorable periods to vocalize. In addition, Southern house wren concentrate their energetic reserves foraging in these periods. The intermediary records of Group 3 indicate that the periods H3 and H6 require an expensive energetic cost to vocalize due the lowest success in an effective communication. In that way, this present study suggest there was a pattern in diary activity period in Southern House Wren populations evaluated, with no overlap of activities, complementing the knowledge of the specie biology and behavior.

Southern house wren; Period of activity; Vocalization; Edges of Atlantic Forest fragments.


Full text

Supplementary material
Supplemental material including one sound file can be found with this article online at

Alvares, C. A.; Stape, J. L.; Sentelhas, P. C.; Gonçalves, J. L. M.; Sparovek, G. Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, v. 22, no. 6, p. 711-728, 2014.

Blendinger, P. G. Abundance and diversity of small-bird assemblages in the Monte desert, Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments, v. 61, no. 4, p. 567-587, 2005.

Brown, J. Troglodytes musculus. 2003. Available from: <http://www.animal$narrative.html>. Accessed on: May 15, 2017.

Catchpole, C. K.; Slater, P. J. B. Bird song: biological themes and variations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Dias, A. F. S. Competição por espaço acústico: adaptações de cantos de aves em uma zona de alta biodiversidade do Brasil Central. Brasília: Universidade de Brasília, 2013. (Thesis).

Dias, S. C.; Candido, D. M.; Brescovit, A. D. Scorpions from Mata do Buraquinho, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, with ecological notes on a population of Ananteris mauryi Lourenço (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, v. 23, no. 3, p. 707-710, 2006.

Fasanella, M.; Fernández, G. J. Alarm calls of the Southern House Wren Troglodytes musculus: variation with nesting stage and predator model. Journal of Ornithology, v. 150, no. 4, p. 853-863, 2009.

Granzinnolli, M. A. M.; Motta-Junior, J. C. Aves de rapina: levantamento, seleção de habitat e dieta. In: Matter, S. V.; Straube, F.; Accordi, I.; Piacentini, V.; Cândido-Jr., J. F. (Orgs.). Ornitologia e conservação: ciência aplicada, técnicas de pesquisas e levantamento. Rio de Janeiro: Technical Books, 2010. p. 169-187.

Henwood, K.; Fabrick, A. A quantitative analysis of the dawn chorus: temporal selection for communicatory optimization. The American Naturalist, v. 114, no. 2, p. 260-274, 1979.

Kacelnik, A.; Krebs, J. R. The dawn chorus in the great tit (Parus major): proximate and ultimate causes. Behaviour, v. 83, p. 287-309, 1982.

Köppen, W. Versuch einer Klassifikation der Klimate, vorzugweise nach ihren Beziehungen zur Pflanzenwelt. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, v. 18, p. 106-120, 1901.

Kroodsma, D. E.; Byers, B. E. The function(s) of bird song. American Zoologist, v. 31, no. 2, p. 318-328, 1991.

Llambías, P. E. How do Southern House Wrens Troglodytes aedon musculus achieve polygyny? an experimental approach. Journal of Ornithology, v. 153, no. 2, p. 571-578, 2012.

Mace, R. Importance of female behaviour in the dawn chorus. Animal Behavior, v. 34, p. 621-622, 1986.

Mace, R. Why do birds sing at dawn. ARDEA - Netherlands Ornithologists' Union, v. 75, p. 3-132, 1987.

Marini, M. A. Effects of forest fragmentation on birds of the Cerrado Region, Brazil. Bird Conservation International, v. 11, p. 13-25, 2001.

Maynard-Smith, J.; Harper, D. Animal signals. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Pereira, M. S. Assembleia de aves territorialistas na formação espinilho
: densidade e seleção de habitat reprodutivo. Porto Alegre: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, 2015. (Graduate dissertation).

Santiago, R. G. Corruíra ou cambaxirra (Troglodytes (aedon) musculus). Biblioteca Digital de Ciências. 2007. Available from: <>. Accessed on: May 15, 2016.

Santos, J. S.; Silva, V. P. R.; Lima, E. R. V.; Araújo, L. E.; Costa, A. D. L. Campo térmico urbano e a sua relação com o uso e cobertura do solo em cidade tropical úmida. Revista Brasileira de Geografia Física, v. 5, no. 3, p. 540-557, 2012. Available from: <>. Accessed on: May 15, 2016.

Santos, K. K. Aves da RPPN Alto Montana, Serra da Mantiqueira, Itamonte-MG. Itamonte: Instituto Alto-Montana da Serra Fina, 2014. Available from: <>. Accessed on: May 26, 2016.

Siciliano, S.; Tavares, D. C. Voo pela Fiocruz: guia de aves do campus. Rio de Janeiro: 2011. Museu da Vida, Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, 2011.

Sick, H. Ornitologia brasileira. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1997.

Sick, H. Ornitologia brasileira. 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 2001.

Silva, L. M. T.; Braga, R. B. Parque Natural Municipal do Rio Cuiá, em João Pessoa, Paraíba: subsídios geográficos para o plano de manejo. Revista OKARA: Geografia em Debate, v. 11, no. 1, p. 92-104, 2017. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Feb. 15, 2018.

Slabbekoorn, H.; Smith, T. B. Bird song, ecology and speciation. Philosophical Transactions of the Real Society of London B, v. 357, p. 493-503, 2002.

Thomas, R. J. The costs of singing in nightingales. Animal Behaviour, v. 63, no. 5, p. 959-966, 2002.

Voos, W. A.; Sander, M. Frutos de árvores nativas na alimentação das aves. Trigo e Soja, v. 51, p. 26-30, 1980.