Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)



Home Archive v. 5, no. 10 (2018) Adejumo

 

Vol. 5, No. 10, p. 405-416 - Aug. 31, 2018

 

Production and evaluation of biodegraded feather meal using immobilised and crude enzyme from Bacillus subtilis on broiler chickens



Isaac Oluseun Adejumo and Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji

Abstract
The management of solid wastes has been a major concern to many cities of the world due to daily increasing rural-urban migration and globalization. Due to a greater consumption of poultry meat, the disposal of feather wastes has contributed to the daily increasing environmental pollution. Agricultural wastes (such as poultry feathers) are disposed by burning, which consequently constitute environmental pollution and their chemical or mechanical conversion into animal feed normally leads to minimization of amino acids. The application of biotechnology through the utilisation of enzymes is considered an easy and inexpensive means of producing valuable products from poultry feather wastes. Bacillus subtilis was isolated from a dumping site and the plates were incubated on nutrient agar. The treatments containing 200 mL each of crude enzyme, immobilized enzyme and sterilized water were added to the bioreactor for biodegradation of chicken feathers. After hydrolysis, the feathers were dried and the products labelled microbial biodegraded feather meal. The effect of temperature, keratinolytic activity and the influence of the immobilised and crude enzyme-degraded feather meal on broiler chickens were assessed. The optimal activity and biodegradative potential of the keratinolytic enzyme was observed as 45 oC and 48 h after fermentation, respectively. The weight gain of the birds fed immobilised enzyme-degraded feather meal-based diet compared with the control. The enzyme-degraded feather meal is safe for inclusion in broilers' diet and slight feeding manipulations could improve their performance.


Keywords
Bacillus subtilis; Biotechnology; Feather wastes; Keratinase.

DOI
10.21472/bjbs.051017

Full text
PDF

References
Adejumo, D. O.; Onifade, A. A. Effects of graded levels of feather meal as a dietary protein source on growth performance, haematology, serum chemistry and clinical enzyme activities in rabbits. Asset Series A, v. 5, p. 129-138, 2005.

Adejumo, I. O.; Adetunji, C. O.; Ogundipe, K.; Osademe, S. N. Chemical composition and amino acid profile of differently processed feather meal. J. Agric. Sci., v. 61, p. 237-246, 2016. https://doi.org/10.2298/JAS1603237A

Adetunji, C. O.; Adejumo, I. O. Efficacy of crude and immobilized enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis for production of biodegraded feather meal and their assessment on chickens. Env. Tech. & Inn., v. 11, p. 116-124, 2018.

Adetunji, C. O.; Adejumo, I. O. Nutritional assessment of mycomeat produced from different agricultural substrates using wild and mutant strains from Pleurotus sajor-caju during solid state fermentation. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech., v. 224, p. 14-19, 2017.

Adetunji, C. O.; Makanjuola, O. R.; Arowora, K. A.; Afolayan, S. S.; Adetunji, J. B. Production and Application of Keratin-Based Organic Fertilizer from Microbially Hydrolyzed Feathers to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Int. J. Sci. & Eng. Res., v. 3, p. 1-9, 2012.

Aiello, S. E. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 8. ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck, 1998.

Arica, M. Y.; Alaeddinoglu, N. G.; Hasirci, V. Immobilization of glucoamylase onto activated pHEMA/EGDMA microspheres: properties and application to a packed-bed reactor. Enz. Microbial. Tech., v. 22, p. 152-157, 1998.

Arunlertaree, C.; Rakyuttithamkul, E. Utilization of fermented feather meal as a replacement of fish meal in the diet of hybrid Clarias catfish. Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.), v. 40, p. 436-448, 2006.

Avwioro, O. G. Histochemistry and tissue pathology, principle and techniques. Nigeria: Claverianum Press, 2010.

Bellaver, C. Ingredientes de origem animal destinado à fabricação de rações. Anais do Simpósio Sobre Ingredientes na Alimentação Animal Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, 2001.

Brandelli, A. Bacterial keratinases: Useful enzymes for bioprocessing agroindustrial wastes and beyond. Food Bioprocess. Technol., v. 1, p. 105-116, 2008.

Brandelli, A.; Daroit, D. J.; Riffel, A. Biochemical features of microbial keratinases and their production and applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., v. 85, p. 1735-1750, 2010.

Caires, C. M.; Fernandes, E. A.; Fagundes, N. S.; Carvalho, A. P.; Maciel, M. P.; Oliveira, B. R. The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds. Use of animal co-products in broilers diets. Braz. J. Poult. Sci., v. 12, p. 41-46, 2010.

Călin, M.; Constantinescu-Aruxandei, D.; Alexandrescu, E.; Răut, I.; Doni, M. B.; Arsene, M.-L.; Oancea, F.; Jecu, L.; Lazăr, V. Degradation of keratin substrates by keratinolytic fungi. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, v. 28, p. 101-112, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2017.05.007

Chaturvedi, V.; Bhange, K.; Bhatt, R.; Verma, P. Production of keratinases using chicken feathers as substrate by a novel multifunctional strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri and its dehairing application. Biocata. Agric. Biotechnol., v. 3, p. 176-174, 2014.

Coward-Kelly, G.; Agbogbo, F. K.; Holtzapple, M. T. Lime treatment of keratinous materials for the generation of highly digestible animal feed: 2. Animal hair. Bioresour. Technol., v. 97, p. 1344-1352, 2006.

Dong, Y.-Z.; Chang, W.-S.; Chen, P. T. Characterization and over expression of a novel keratinase from Bacillus polyfermenticus B4 in recombinant Bacillus subtilis. Bioresources and Bioprocessing, 4:47, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40643-017-0177-1

Duncan, D. B. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, v. 11, p. 1-42, 1955. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478

Ejere, V. C.; Adeniji, A. O.; Levi, C. A.; Asogwa, C. N.; Chukwuka, C. O. Evaluation of poultry feather meal as a dietary protein source for Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis hybrid. Int. J. Sci. and Tech., v. 3, p. 203-208, 2014

Forgacs, G.; Alinezhad, S.; Mirabdollah, A.; Feuk-Lagerstedt, E.; Horvath, I. S. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production. J. Environ. Sci., v. 23, p. 1747, 2001.

Franssen, M. C. R.; Steunenberg, P.; Scott, E. L.; Zuilhof, H.; Sanders, J. P. M. Immobilised enzymes in biorenewables production. Chem. Soc. Rev., v. 42, p. 6491-6533, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3CS00004D

Galighor, A. E.; Koziff, E. N. Essentials of practical microtechnique. 2. ed. New York: Lea and Febriger, 1976.

Gopinath, S. C. B.; Periasamy, A.; Lakshmipriya, T.; Tang, T. H.; Chen, Y.; Hashim, U.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Arshad, M. K. M. Biotechnological aspects and perspective of microbial keratinase production. BioMed Research International, v. 2015, Article ID 140726, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/140726

Grazziotin, A.; Pimentel, F. A.; De Jong, E. V.; Brandelli, A. Poultry feather hydrolysate as a protein source for growing rats. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci., v. 45, p. 61-67, 2008.

Gröhs, F. P. A.; Folmer, C. A. P.; Brandelli, A. Purification and characterization of a keratinolytic protease produced by probiotic Bacillus subtilis. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol., v. 7, p. 102-109, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2016.05.00

Gupta, R; Ramnani, P. Microbial keratinases and their prospective applications: An overview. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., v. 70, p. 21-33, 2006.

Hu, X.; Guo, Y. Corticosterone administration alters small intestinal morphology and function of broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., v. 21, p. 1773-1778, 2008.

Huang, Q.; Peng, Y.; Li, X. Purification and characterization of an extracellular alkaline serine protease with dehairing function from Bacillus pumilus. Curr. Microbiol., v. 43, p. 169-173, 2003.

Khardenavis, A. A.; Kapley, A.; Purohit, H. J. Processing of poultry feathers by alkaline keratin hydrolyzing enzyme from Serratia sp. HPC 1383. Waste Manag., v. 29, p. 1409-1415, 2009.

Laba, W.; Rodziewicz, A. Keratinolytic potential of feather degrading Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus cereus. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., v. 19, p. 371378, 2010.

Łaba, W.; Szczekała, K. B. Keratinolytic proteases in biodegradation of pretreated feathers. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., v. 22, p. 1101-1109, 2013.

Mariotti, M. P.; Yamanaka, H.; Araujo, A. R.; Trevisan, H. C. Hydrolysis of whey lactose by immobilized β-Galactosidase. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., v. 51, p. 1233-1240, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132008000600019

Metu, A. G.; Okeyika, K. O.; Maduka, O. D. Achieving sustainable food security in Nigeria: Challenges and way forward. Proceeding of the 3rd International Conference on African Development Issues (CU-ICADI), p. 182-187, 2016.

Mortiz, J. S.; Latshaw, J. D. Indicators of nutritional value of hydrolyzed feather meal. Poult Sci., v. 80, p. 79-86, 2001.

Ochetim, S. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal with boiled feather meal on the performance of broiler chickens. AJAS, v. 6, p. 597-600, 1993.

Okareh, O. T.; Awe, A. O., Sridhar, M. K. C. Effect of processed feather waste as mulch on crop growth and soil fertilization. J. Agric. and Eco. Res. Int., v. 4, p. 25-35, 2015.

Papadopolous, M. C.; El-Boushy, A. R.; Roodbeen, A. E.; Ketelaars, E. H. Effects of processing time and moisture content on amino acids composition and nitrogen characteristics of feather meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., v. 14, p. 279-290, 1986.

Papadopoulos, M. C. Amino acid content and protein solubility of feather meal as affected by different processing conditions. Neth. J. Agr., v. 33, p. 317-319, 1985.

Prakash, P.; Jayalakshmi, S. K.; Sceeramulu, K. Production of keratinase by free and immobilized cells of Bacillus halodurans strain PPKS-2: Partial characterization and its application in feather degradation and dehairing of the goat skin. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., v. 160, p. 1909-1920, 2010.

Riffel, A.; Lucas, F.; Heeb, P.; Brandelli, A. Characterization of a new keratinolytic bacterium that completely degrades native feather keratin. Arch. Microbiol., v. 179, p. 258-265, 2003.

Rutkowski, A.; Józefiak, D.; Frątczak, M.; Wiąz, M. A note on the nutritional value of enzymatically hydrolyzed feather meal for broiler chickens. J. Anim. and Feed Sci., v. 12, p. 299-305, 2003.

Schalm, O. W.; Jain, N. C.; Caroll, E. J. Veterinary haematology. 3. ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Fabiger, 1975.

Sridhar, M. K. C. UNICEF/CASSAD. Waste Management Project in Nigeria, 2001.

Verma, A.; Singh, H.; Anwar, S.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Tiwari, K. K.; Kaur, S.; et al. Microbial keratinases: Industrial enzymes with waste management potential. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., v. 37, p. 476-491, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2016.1185388

Wang, X.; Parson, C. M. Effect of processing systems on protein quality of feather meal and hog hair meals. Poult. Sci., v. 76, p. 491-496, 1997.

Xu, B.; Zhong, Q.; Tang, X.; Yang, Y.; Huang, Z. Isolation and characterization of a new keratinolytic bacterium that exhibits significant feather-degrading capability. Afr. J. Biotechnol., v. 8, p. 4590-4596, 2009.