Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)

Home Archive v. 4, No. 7 (2017) Agele


Vol. 4, No. 7, p. 113-126 - Jun. 30, 2017


Effects of shading, irrigation and mycorrhizal inoculation on growth and development of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae) seedlings in the nursery

Samuel O. Agele , Peter Aiyelari and Charles Friday

Experiments were conducted to examine the growth and development of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae) seedlings subjected to shading, irrigation regimes and mycorrhizal inoculation in the dry season. Treatments were 2 x 2 x 2 factorial combination consisting of shade and no-shade (open sun), 7 and 14 day irrigation intervals and mycorrhizal inoculation or non-inoculation. Seedlings that were grown under shade and irrigated weekly produced highest number and length of fronds, and shoot, leaf and frond weights in addition to taller plants compared to open sun (unshaded) seedlings. Across irrigation treatments, unshaded seedlings had lower weights of leaf, frond and shoot biomass. The effects of shade treatments were significant on plant height and frond length from 2 to 20 weeks after planting. The seedlings irrigated fortnightly produced longer roots compared with the unshaded and weekly irrigated. Fortnight irrigation enhanced root development compared with weekly irrigation. Shading and weekly irrigation significantly enhanced soil moisture contents and seedling water use efficiency compared with the unshaded. Shaded seedlings irrigated weekly used larger amount of water compared with fortnight irrigation. Significant interactions were obtained between shade and irrigation regimes for most of the growth parameters measured. Mycorrhizal inoculation, shaded and weekly irrigated seedlings were more vigorous compared with the unshaded and non-inoculated.

Seedling; Survival; Growth; Water use; Shade; Irrigation; inoculation.


Full text

Agele, S. O.; Osaigbovo, A. U.; Ogedegbe, S. A.; Nwawe, A. K. Effects of watering regime, organic manuring and mycorrhizal inoculation on the growth and development of Shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn) seedlings. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, v. 4, No. 3, p. 35-45, 2016. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Jul. 23, 2016.

Agele, S. O.; Agbona, I. A.; Ewulo, B. S.; Anifowose, A. Y. Drip irrigation scheduling for optimizing productivity of water use and yield of dry season pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in an inland valley swamp in a humid zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, v. 4, No. 2, p. 171-184, 2014.

Agele, S. O.; Iremiren, G. O.; Ojeniyi, S. O. Evapotranspiration, water use efficiency and yield of rainfed and irrigated tomato in the dry season in a humid rainforest zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Biology & Agricultural Sciences, v. 13, p. 469-476, 2011.

Allen, R. G.; Pereira, L. S.; Raes, D.; Smith, M. Crop evapotranspiration: guideline for computing crop water requirement. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 1998. (FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 56).

Awotoye, O. O.; Atayese, M. O.; Osonubi, O.; Mulongoy, K.; Okali, D. U. V. Response of some tropical nitrogen-fixing woody legumes to drought and inoculation with mycorrhiza. In: Mulongoy, K.; Gueye, M.; Spencer, D. S. C. (Eds.). Biological Nitrogen fixation and sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 67-77.

Bateman, I. J.; Fisher, B.; Fitzherbert, E.; Glew, D.; Naidoo, R. Tigers, market and palm oil: market potential for conservation. Oryx, v. 44, p. 230-234, 2010.

Bello, A. G.; Ambursa, A. S. Indigenous knowledge of gum arabic (Acacia senegal L.) wild production in North-Western Nigeria. 31st. Annual Conference of Forestry Association of Nigeria, 2005.

Boffa, J. M. Agro forestry parkland systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 1999. (FAO conservation guide, 34).

Corley, R. H. V.; Tinker, P. B. The oil palm. 4. ed. World Agriculture Series, 2003. p. 19-28.

Corley, R. H. V. How much oil palm do we need? Environmental Science Policy, v. 12, p. 134-139, 2009.

Doorenbos, J.; Pruitt, W. O. Crop water requirements. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 1977. (FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 24).

Dhillion, S.; Gustad, G. Local management practices influence on the viability of the baobab (Adansonia digitata Linn.) in different land use types. Ginazana, Mpali. Agriculture and Ecosystem, v. 101, p. 84-103, 2004.

Ezawa, T.; Smith, S. E.; Smith, F. A. P. Metabolism and transport in AM fungi. Plant Soil, v. 244, p. 221-230, 2002.

Henderson, J.; Osborne, D. J. The oil palm in our lives: how this came about. Endeavor, v. 24, No. 2, p. 63-68, 2000.

Henson, I. E.; Noor, M. R. M. D.; Harun, M. H.; Yahya, Z.; Mustakim, S. N. A. Stress development and its detection in young oil palms in North Kedah. Malaysia. Journal of Oil Palm Research, v. 17, p. 11-26, 2005. Available from: <>. Accessed on: Jul. 26, 2016.

Henson, I. E.; Harun, M. H.; Chang, K. C.; Mohammed, A. T. Predicting soil water status, evapotranspiration growth and yield of young oil palm in a seasonally dry region of Malaysia. Journal of Oil Palm Research, v. 19, p. 398-415, 2007.

Ho, C. L.; Kwan, Y. Y.; Choi, M. C.; Tee, S. S.; Ng, W. N.; Lim, K. A.; Lee, Y. R.; Ooi, S. E.; Lee, W. W.; Tee, J. M.; Tan, S. H.; Kulaveerasingam, H.; Alwee, S. S. R. S.; Abdullah, M. O. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). BMC Genomics, v. 381, p. 1-12, 2007.

Ibiremo, O. S.; Daniel, M. A.; Oloyede, A. A.; Iremiren, G. O. Growth of coffee seedlings as influenced by arbuscular mycorrizal inoculation and phosphate fertilizer in two soils in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Plant Science, v. 2, No. 6, p. 160-165, 2011.

IWM - International Water Management Institute. Annual Reports. IWMI Thailand. 2002.

Levy, Y.; Krikum, J. Effects of irrigation, water and salinity and root-stock on the vertical distribution of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza on citrus roots. New Phytol., v. 15, p. 397-403, 1983.

Majumder, A. L.; Sengupta, S.; Goswami, L. Osmolyte regulation in abiotic stress. In: Pareek, A.; Sopory, S. K.; Bohnert, H.; Govindjee (Eds.). Abiotic stress adaptation in plants. Physiological, Molecular and Genomic Foundation, 2010. p.349-370.

Mimano, L. N.; Macharia, C. W.; Wasilwa, L. A. Micro-propagation: a useful tool for rapid multiplication of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids in Kenya. Proceedings of 10th Kenyan Agricultural Research Institute Biennial Scientific Conference, 2006. v. 1.

NIFOR. A manual of oil palm production. Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research. 2009.

Niinemets, U. Global-scale climatic controls of leaf dry mass per area, density, and thickness in trees and shrubs. Ecology, v. 82, p. 2390-2401, 2001.

Omereji, G. O. Meeting Nigeria's oil needs: small holders or large scale plantation approach. Proc. 1993 PORIM International Palm Oil Congress, Kuala Lampur, 1995.

Omoti, U. Recent development in the oil palm industry in Nigeria. Paper presented at conference. "The future of the oil palm industry in Africa and strategies for development", 12th September. African Oil Palm Development Association/African Development Bank. Abijan, 2001.

Osundina, M. A. Responses of seedlings of Parkia biglobosa to drought and inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza. Nigeria Journal of Botany, v. 8, p. 1-10, 1995.

Oyun, M. B.; Adeduntan, S. A.; Suberu, S. U. Influence of watering regimes and mycorrhizae inoculations on the physiology and early growth of Acacia senegal (L.). Wild. African Journal of Plant Science, v. 4, No. 7, p. 210-216, 2010.

Pellegrino, T.; Lebon, E.; Simmonneau, T.; Wery, J. Towards a simple indicator of water stress in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) based on the differential sensitivity of vegetative growth component. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, v. 11, p. 306-315, 2005.

Read, D. J.; Boyd, R. C. Water Relations of mycorrhizal fungi and their host plant. In: Ayres, P. C.; Boddy, L. (Eds). Water, fungi and plants. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Tiaz, L.; Zeiger, E. Plant physiology. 2. ed. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates Inc., 1998.

Yusof, B. Palm oil production through sustainable plantations. European Journal of Lipid Science Technology, v. 109, p. 289-295, 2007.