Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)

Home Archive v. 4, No. 7 (2017) Babatunde


Vol. 4, No. 7, p. 25-34 - Jun. 30, 2017


Comparative study of leaf morphology, phytochemical, mineral and proximate analysis of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and its stable mutant

Esan Edward Babatunde , Adaramola Feyisara Banji , Odutayo Foluke , Aina David Ayandiran and Kotun Fatima

Differences in terms of morphology, phytochemical, mineral and proximate compositions created as a result of a natural spontaneous mutation that produced a stable bud-sport on the vegetative parent body of a member of the Euphorbiacea Family Codiaeum variegatum cv. ovalifolium was compared. Morphological characterization of the leaves was done by leaf skeletonization, proximate and mineral analyzes were carried out by method of Association of Official Analytical Chemists while the phytochemical screening was carried out on 80% methanol extracts of the leaves using standard methods. From the results of the morphological characteristics, the mutant showed more vegetative vigor than the parent plant. Results of phytochemical screening showed that; while flavonoid was absent in both, cardiac glycosides and tannins were highly present in the parent but slightly present in the mutant. For both mutant and the parent, calcium had the highest concentration. Copper was absent in the parent while it occurred at the lowest concentration in the mutant. Also, the concentrations of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron and zinc were higher in the parent plant. Results of proximate composition of the plants showed that both mutant and the parent plant have high nutritive values. Conclusively, the morphological characters of the mutant were shown to distinctly differ from those of the parent plant. Also, both the mutant and its parent plant showed considerably good amount of important phytochemicals, minerals and proximate compositions, making them good prospects for food and medicine.

Garden croton; Mineral; Morphology; Mutant; Phytochemical; Proximate.


Full text

Amin, M. M.; Sawhey, S. S.; Jassal, M. M. S. Qualitative and quantitative of phytochemicals of Taraxacum officinale. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, v. 2, No. 1, p. 1-5, 2013.

AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Method of Analysis. 15. ed. Washington, DC: AOAC, 1990.

AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Method of Analysis. 17. ed. Arlington, Virginia: AOAC, 2003.

Balch, P. A.; Balch, J. F. Prescription for nutritional healing. 3. ed. Avery Penguin JK Putnam, 2000. p. 117-206.

Campbell, N. A.; Reece, J. B.; Urry, L. A.; Cain, M. L.; Wasserman, S. A.; Winickoff, B.; Jackson, R. B. Biology. 8. ed. Pearson Publisher, 2008. p. 101.

Caroline, B.; Martin, S.; Alyson, T. Plant biochemitry. New York: Garland Science Group, 2008.

Clifford, A. H.; Gessener, G. H. The encyclopedia of Chemistry. 3. ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1973.

Dutta, A. C. Botany for degree student. 6. ed. London, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Esan, E. B.; Denton, O. A.; Ayodele, A. E.; Ogunwenmo, K. O.; Fapohunda, S. O. The establishment of the Babcock University Garden Croton Germplasm Repository. Babcock University Academic Congregation Colloquium Series, v. 2, p. 29-36, 2005.

Fapohunda, S. O.; Esan, E. B.; Ogunwenmo, K. O.; Adedayo, A. Report of Fusarium oxysporum on Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) cultivars in Nigeria. Journal of life and Physical Science, v. 2, No. 1, p. 40-41, 2005.

Harborne, J. Phytochemical methods. London: Chapman and Hall, 1973.

Heaney, R. D. Thinking straight about calcium. The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 328, No. 7, p. 503-505, 1994.

Klein, R. M.; Klein, D. T. Research Methods in Plant Science. Garden City, New York: The National History Press, 1970.

Mwine, J. T.; Damme, P. V. Why do Euphorbiaceae tick as medicinal plants? a review of Euphorbiaceae Family and its medicinal features. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, v. 5, p. 652-662, 2011.

Ogunwenmo, K. O.; Idowu, O. A.; Innocent, C.; Esan, E. B.; Oyelana, O. A. Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L) Blume (Euphorbiaaceae) show variability in phytochemical and cytological characteristics. African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 6, p. 2400-2405, 2007.

Ronald, J. K.; Seymour, B. Plant science. Ronald Journal Konopka, v. 68, No. 9, p. 2112-2116, 1971.

Smith, W. D.; Hammersten, J. F. Serum Mg in clinical disorder. South Molecular Journal, v. 51, p. 1116-1117, 1958.

Sofowora, A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. New York: Cheschester John Wiley and sons, 1993.

Taylor, N. The garden dictionary and the practical encyclopedia of garden horticultures and landscapes design. Garden City NY USA: Garden E. B. City Pub. Comp., 1938.

Taylor, D. J.; Green, N. P. O.; Stout, G. W.; Soper, R. Biological science. 3. ed. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 2002.

Trease, G. E.; Evans, W. C. A textbook of pharmacognosy. 14. ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1996.

Underwood, E. J.; Suttle, N. F. The mineral nutrition of Livestock. New York: CABI publishing, 1999.

Xue, X.; Lili, Z.; Binmei, L.; Yafeng, Y.; Yuejin, W. Characterization and mapping of a spotted leaf mutant in rice (Oryza sativa). Genetics and Molecular Biology, v. 37, No. 2, p. 406-413, 2014.