Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)

Home Archive v. 3, no. 5 (2016) Padmanabhan


Vol. 3, No. 5, p. 121-134 - Jun. 30, 2016


Impact of eyestalk ablation on androgenic gland activity in the freshwater crab Travancoriana schirnerae Bott, 1969 (Decapoda: Gecarcinucidae)

Latha Nadkandi Padmanabhan and Sudha Devi Arath Raghavan

The current study investigated the impact of eyestalk ablation on androgenic gland activity in the freshwater crab Travancoriana schirnerae Bott, 1969 (Decapoda: Gecarcinucidae). Bilateral eyestalk ablation during active phase (March-June) induced hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the gland as evidenced by increased width of the gland, thickness of the connective tissue layer, increase in cell and nuclear diameter with predominance of type I cells. This hypertrophy and hyperplasia was not followed by secretory activity during active phase which possibly suggests the non-functional nature of hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Unilateral destalkation during active phase neither caused hypertrophy nor hyperplasia of the gland cells probably because these crabs may still receive the inhibitory principle from the remaining intact eyestalk causing the gland to remain analogous to that of the unablated controls. The androgenic gland of control crabs during revival phase (January-February) was discerned with a few patches of proliferated type I cells scattered among vacuoles and degenerating cells. The most prominent feature of the gland of bilaterally ablated crabs during revival phase was the extensive proliferation of type I cells. Not much significant change was observed in the morphology and histology of the gland of unilaterally ablated crabs of revival phase.

Androgenic gland, eyestalk ablation, freshwater crab, histology, hyperplasia, hypertrophy.


Full text

Adiyodi, R. G. Seasonal changes and the role of eyestalks in the activity of the androgenic gland of the crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous (Herbst). Comp. Physiol. Ecol., v. 9, p. 427-431, 1984.

Adiyodi, K. G.; Adiyodi, R. G. Endocrine control of reproduction in decapod Crustacea. Biol. Rev., v. 45, p. 121-165, 1970. http://10.1111/j.1469-185X.1970.tb01627.x

Adiyodi, K. G.; Adiyodi, R. G. Comparative physiology of reproduction in arthropods. Adv. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., v. 5, p. 37-107, 1974.

Aoto, T.; Nishida, H. Effect of removal of the eyestalks on the growth and maturation of oocytes in a hermaphroditic prawn Pandalus kessleri. J. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido University, Series VI, v. 12, p. 412-424, 1956.

Awari, S. A.; Kiran, D. Histological and histochemical study of androgenic gland of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Mann). J. Aquacult. Trop., v. 14, p. 101-112, 1999.

Berreur-Bonnenfant, J. Action de la glande androgene et du cerveau sur la gamatogenese de Crustaces Peracarides. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen., v. 108, p. 521-558, 1967.

Carlisle, D. B. On the sexual biology of Pandalus borealis (Crustacea, Decapoda). The termination of the male phase. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, v. 38, p. 481-491, 1959.

Charniaux-Cotton, H. Sex determination. In: Waterman, T. H. (Ed.). The Physiology of Crustacea. New York: Academic Press, 1960. v. I.

Charniaux-Cotton, H. Hormonal Control of Sex Differentiation in invertebrates. In: De Haan, R. L.; Ursprund, H. (Eds.). Organogenesis. New York: Academic Press, 1965. p. 701-740.

Charniaux-Cotton, H. Arrét de la spermatogenèse chez la Crevette Pandalus borealis (Krøyer) après ablation des pédoncules oculaires. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 161, p. 2100-2104, 1967.

Charniaux-Cotton, H.; Payen, G. Sex differentiation. In: Bliss, D. E.; Mantel, L. H. (Eds.). The Biology of Crustacea. New York: Academic Press, 1985. p. 217-299.

Charniaux-Cotton, H.; Payen, G. Crustacean Reproduction. In: Laufer, H.; Downer, R. G. H. (Eds). Endocrinology of selected invertebrate types. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1988. p. 279-303.

Choy, S. C. Growth and reproduction of eyestalk ablated Penaeus canaliculatus (Crustacea: Penaeidae). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., v. 112, p. 93-107, 1987.

Chung, J. S.; Manor, R.; Sagi, A. Cloning of an insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: implications for eyestalk regulation of IAG expression. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., v. 173, p. 4-10, 2011.

Demeusy, N. Effets de l'ablation des pedoncules oculaires sur le developpement de l'appareil genital mâle de Carcinus maenas Pennant. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 236, p. 974-975, 1953.

Demeusy, N.; Veilet, A. Influence de l'ablation des pedoncules oculaires sur la glande androgene de Carcinus maenas. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 246, p. 1104-1107, 1958.

Demeusy, M. N. Differenciation des voies genitales males du crabe Carcinus maenas Linne. Role des pedoncules oculaires. Cah. Biol. Mar., v. 1, p. 259-277, 1960.

Devi, A. R. S.; Smija, M. K. Seasonal changes in the structure and secretory activity of the androgenic gland of Travancoriana schirnerae. Cent. Eur. J. Biol., v. 9, p. 70-79, 2014.

Erkan, M.; Tunali, Y.; Ekinci, S.; Kara, S. Histology of the androgenic gland in Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775) (Decapoda, Brachyura). Turk. J. Zool., v. 33, p. 79-84, 2010.

Fingerman, M. Roles of neurotransmitters in regulating reproductive hormone release and gonadal maturation. Invertebr. Reprod. Dev., v. 31, p. 47-54, 1997.

Foulks, N. B.; Hoffman, D. L. The effects of eyestalk ablation and β-ecdysone on RNA synthesis in the androgenic glands of the protandric shrimp, Pandalus platyceros (Brandt). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., v. 22, p. 439-444, 1974.

Fowler, R. J.; Leonard, B. V. The structure and function of the androgenic gland in Cherax destructor (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Aquaculture, v. 171, p. 135-148, 1999.

Ginsburger-Vogel, T.; Charniaux-Cotton, H. Sex determination. In: Abele, L. G. (Ed.). The Biology of Crustacea. New York: Academic Press, 1982. v. 2. p. 257-281.

Gupta, N. V. S.; Kurup, K. N. P.; Adiyodi, R. G.; Adiyodi, K. G. The antagonism between somatic growth and testicular activity during different phases in intermolt (stage C4) in sexually mature freshwater crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous. Invertebr. Reprod. Dev., v. 16, p. 195-203, 1989.

Hasegawa, Y.; Hirose, E.; Katakura, Y. Hormonal control of sexual differentiation and reproduction in Crustacea. Amer. Zool., v. 33, p. 403-411, 1993.

Hoffman, D. L. Seasonal eyestalk inhibition on the androgenic glands of a protandric shrimp. Nature, v. 218, p. 170-172, 1968.

Joshi, P. C.; Khanna, S. S. Studies on the androgenic gland of the freshwater crab Potamon koolooense (Rathbun). Z. Mikrosk. Anat. Forsc., v. 4, p. 699-713, 1987.

Juchault, P. Correlation entre differenciation sexuelle male externe et function andro-inhibitrice de la region mediane du protocerebron chez le crustace, Sphaeroma serratum. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 285, p. 179-182, 1977.

Juchault, P.; Legrand, J. J.; Mocquard, J. P. Mise en evidence d'une inhibition protocérébrale de la glande androgène et de la croissance des variants sexuels mâles chez l'Oniscoide Porcellio dilatatus Brandt. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 261, p. 1116-1118, 1965.

Juchault, P.; Legrand, J. J. Study of the functioning of the androgenic gland in the case of cross grafts between two terrestrial isopod crustacean species, Porcellio dilatatus and Armadillidium vulgare: notion of a hormone specificity in control of androgenic gland function. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., v. 36, p. 175-186, 1978.

Katakura, Y. Sex differentiation and androgenic gland hormone in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. Sym. Zool. S. Lon., v. 53, p. 127-142, 1984.

Katakura, Y. Endocrine and genetic control of sex differentiation in the malacostracan Crustacea. Invertebr. Reprod. Dev., v. 16, p. 177-181, 1989.

Khalaila, I.; Weil, S.; Sagi, A. Endocrine balance between male and female components of the reproductive system in intersex Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae). J. Exp. Zool., v. 283, p. 286-294, 1999.

Khalaila, I.; Manor, R.; Weil, S.; Granot, Y.; Keller, R.; Sagi, A. The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., v. 127, p. 147-156, 2002.

Kim, D. H.; Jo, Q.; Kim, B. K.; Han, C. H. Eyestalk ablation-induced androgenic gland activity and gonad development in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849). Invertebr. Reprod. Dev., v. 42, p. 35-42, 2002.

Kulkarni, G. K.; Nagabhushanam, R.; Joshi, P. K. Neuroendocrine control of reproduction in the male penaeid prawn, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii (Miers) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae). Hydrobiologia, v. 108, p. 281-289, 1984.

Legrand, J. J.; Juchault, P.; Mocquard, J. P.; Noulin, G. Contribution à l'étude du contrôle neurohumoral de la physiologie sexuelle mále chez les Crustacés Isopodes terrestres. Ann. Embryol. Morphol., v. 1, p. 97-105, 1968.

Meusy, J. J. Modification ultrastructurales des glandes androgènes de Carcinus maenas L. (Crustacé Décapode) consecutives de l'ablation des pédoncules oculaires. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 26, 5901-5904, 1965.

Okumura, T.; Nikaido, H.; Yoshida, K.; Kotaniguchi, M.; Tsuno, Y.; Seto, Y.; Watanabe, T. Changes in gonadal development, androgenic gland cell structure and hemolymph vitellogenin levels during male phase and sex change in laboratory-maintained protandric shrimp, Pandalus hypsinotus (Crustacea: Caridea: Pandalidae). Mar. Biol., v. 148, p. 347-361, 2005.

Payen, G.; Costlow, J. D.; Charniaux-Cotton, H. Etude comparative de l'ultrastructure des glandes androgènes de crabs normaux et pédonculectonisés pendant la vie larvaire ou aprés la puberté chez les espèces: Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) et Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., v. 17, p. 526-542, 1971.

Phoungpetchara, I.; Tinikul, Y.; Poljaroen, J.; Chotwiwatthanankun, C.; Vanichviriyakit, R.; Sroyraya, M.; Hanna, P. J.; Sobhon, P. Cells producing insulin-like androgenic gland hormone of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, proliferate following bilateral eyestalk-ablation. Tissue Cell, v. 43, p. 165-177, 2011.

Rangnekar, P. V.; Madhyastha, M. N.; Latey, A. N. Hormonal control of reproduction in the male crab, Scylla serrata (Forskal). J. Anim. Morphol. Physiol., v. 18, p. 17-29, 1971.

Reidenbach, J. M. Mise en évidence d'une intervention du complexe neurosécréteur céphalique dans la physiologie sexuelle male chez le Crustacé Isopode marin Idotea balthica blasteri Audouin. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 262, p. 682-684, 1966.

Reidenbach, J. M. Les mêconismes endocriniens dans le contrâle de la différenciation du sexe, la physiologie sexuelle et la mue chez le Crustacé Isopode marin: Idotea balthica (Pallas). Nancy: Univ. de Nancy I, 1971. (Th. Doct. Etat no CNRS: AO-4874).

Revathi, P.; Iyapparaj, P.; Vasanthi, L. A.; Jeyanthi, S.; Sankaralingam, S.; Ramasubburayan, R.; Prakash, S.; Krishnan, M. Impact of eyestalk ablation on the androgenic gland activity in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man). World J. Fish. Mar. Sci., v. 5, p. 373-381, 2013.

Sagi, A.; Anir, E.; Khalaila, I. Sexual differentiation in decapod crustaceans: role of the androgenic gland. Invertebr. Reprod. Dev., v. 31, p. 55-61, 1997.

Sarojini, R.; Gyananath, G. Seasonal variations and the role of neurosecretory hormones on the androgenic gland of the prawn Macrobrachium lamerrii. Proc. Anim. Sci., v. 94, p. 503-508, 1985.

Sroyraya, M.; Chotwiwatthanakun, C.; Stewart, M. J.; Soonklang, N.; Kornthong, N.; Phoungpetchara, I.; Hanna, P. J.; Sobhon, P. Bilateral eyestalk ablation of the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, produces hypertrophy of the androgenic gland and an increase of cells producing insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. Tissue Cell, v. 42, p. 293-300, 2010.

Sun, P. S.; Weatherby, T. M.; Dunlap, M. F.; Arakaki, K. L.; Zacarias, D. T.; Malecha, S. R. Developmental changes in structure and polypeptide profile of the androgenic gland of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquacult. Int., v. 8, p. 327-334, 2000.

Taketomi, Y.; Nishikawa, S.; Koga, S. Testis and androgenic gland during development of external sexual characteristics of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. J. Crust. Biol., v. 16, p. 24-34, 1996.

Taketomi, Y.; Nishino, M.; Yoshizumi, K. Effects of eyestalk hormone on the androgenic gland of the shrimp Neocaridina denticulata. HProc. XIIIth Internatl. Congress Comp. Endocrinol., p. 79-82, 1997.

Thampy, D. M.; John, P. A. The androgenic gland of the shrimp Palaemon dayanus. Mar. Biol., v. 12, p. 285-288, 1972.

Touir, A. Influence de l'ablation des pedoucules oculaires su les glandes androgenes, les gonades, les caracteres sexuels externes males et l'inversion sexuelle chez la Crevette hermaphrodite Lysmata seticaudata Risso. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 277, p. 2441-2544, 1973.

Touir, A. Donnees nouvelles concernant l'endocrinologie sexuelle des Crustaces Decapodes Natantia hermaphrodites et gonochoriques. I. Maintien des glandes androgenes et role de ces glandes dans le controle des gametogeneses et des caracteres sexuels extrenes males. B. Soc. Zool. Fr., v. 102, p. 375-400, 1977a.

Touir, A. Donne esnouvelles concernant l'endocrinologie sexuelle des Crustaces Decapodes Natantia hermaphrodites et gonochoriques. II. Maintien des gonies et evolution des gametogeneses in vivo et in vitro. C. R. Acad. Sci. D, v. 284, p. 2515-2518, 1977b.

Vázquez-Islas, G.; Guerrero-Tortolero, D. A.; Garza-Torres, R.; Álvarez-Ruiz, P., Mejía-Ruiz, H.; Campos-Ramos, R. Quantitative analysis of hypertrophy and hyperactivity in the androgenic gland of eyestalk-ablated male Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during molt stages. Aquaculture, v. 439, p. 7-13, 2015.

Ye, H.; Huang, H.; Li, S.; Wang, G.; Li, Q. In vitro study of neuroendocrine regulation over the testicular development in mud crab Scylla serrata. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol., v. 24, p. 142-146, 2006.