Vol. 2, No. 4, p. 287-294 - Dec. 31, 2015
Air pollution impact on micromorphological and biochemical response of Tabernaemontana divaricata L. (Gentianales: Apocynaceae) and Hamelia patens Jacq. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae)
L. Amulya, N. K. Hemanth Kumar and Shobha Jagannath
In the present investigation an attempt was been made to assess the air pollution effects on micromorphological and biochemical parameters of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Gentianales: Apocynaceae) and Hamelia patensi (Gentianales: Rubiaceae). In polluted area the number of stomata and clogged stomata were found to be higher then control, where as the number of unclogged stomata are found to be very less in the control site. The stomatal breadth and pore length were found to be decreased in polluted area in both the plants when compared to control. The number of subsidiary cells, trichome length values was found to be less then control plants. However trichomes are absent in T. divaricata. The stomatal index was found to be higher in both the plants is when compared to control. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content were found to be maximum in control samples when compare to polluted samples. But ascorbic acid, relative water content, pH and Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) were found to be maximum in polluted samples when compare to control. Based on the present study both the plant species were categorized as tolerant to air pollution.
Pollution, Air Pollution Tolerance Index, APTI, Micromorphology, Stomata.
Ahmed, K. J.; Yunus. M. Leaf surface charecteristics as indicators of Air Pollution. Symposium, 1974.
Arnon, D. N. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, poly phenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, v. 24, n. 1, p. 1-15, 1949.
Behrens, W. A.; Madere, R. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and dehydroisoascorbic acid in selected food products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v. 7, n. 3, p. 158-170, 1994.
Conklin, P. L. Recent advances in the role and biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in plants. Plant Cell Environment, v. 24, p. 383-394, 2001.
Ho, Y. B.; Tai, K. M. Elevated levels of lead and other metals in road side soil and grass and their use to monitor aerial metal depositions in Hong Kong. Environmental Pollution, v. 49, p. 37-51, 1988.
Honour, S. L.; Bell, J. N.; Ashenden, T. W.; Cape, J. N.; Power, S. A. Responses of herbaceous plants to urban air pollution: effects on growth, phenology and leaf surface characteristics. Environmental Pollution, v. 157, p. 1279-1286, 2009.
Jager, H. J.; Unsworth, M. H.; De Temmerman, L.; Mathy, P. Effects of air pollution on agricultural crops in Europe. Brussels, Belgium: Comission of the European Communities, 1993. (Air Pollution Research Report, 46).
Joshi, P. C.; Swami, A. Physiological response of some tree species under road side automobile pollution stress around city of Haridwar, India. Springer Science, v. 27, p. 365-374, 2007.
Jyothi, S. J.; Jaya, D. S. Evaluation of air pollution tolerance index of selected plant species along roadsides in Triruvanthapuram, Kerala. Journal of Environmental Biology, v. 31, p. 379-386, 2010.
Kamala, K.; Arjum, F. K.; Singh, S. N.; Ahmed, K. J.; Behl, M. M. Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camera L. and Syzygium cumini L. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, v. 29, p. 301-308, 1994.
Kayode, J.; Otoide, J. E. Environmental pollution and leaf cuticular variations in Newbouldia laevis Seem. ex Bureau. Asian Journal of Plant Science, v. 6, p. 1024-1026, 2007.
Kulshreshtha, K.; Farooqui, A.; Srivastava, K.; Singh, S. N.; Ahmed, K. J.; Behl, H. M. Effect of diesel exhaust pollution on cuticular and epidermal features of Lantana camera L. and Syzygium cumini L. (Skeels). Journal of Environmental Science and Health, v. 29, p. 301-308, 1994a.
Kulshreshtha, K.; Srivastava, K.; Ahmad, K. J. Effect of automobile exhaust pollution on leaf surface structures of Calotropis procera L. and Nerium indicum L. Journal of Botanical Taxanomy and Geological Botany, v. 105, p. 185-189, 1994b.
Liu,Y. J.; Ding, H. Variation in air pollution tolerance index of plants near a steel factory: implication for landscape - plant species selection for industrial areas. Wseas Transaction on Environment and Development, v. 4, p. 24-32, 2008.
Patel, A. M.; Kousar, H. Assesment of relative water content, leaf extract pH, ascorobic acid and total chlorophyll of some plants species growing in Shivamoga. Plant Archives, v. 11, p. 935-939, 2011.
Psaras, G. K.; Christodoulakis, N. S. Air pollution effects on the ultrastructure of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll cells. Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, v. 38, p. 610-617, 1987.
Pundir, B. P. Vehicular emissions - trends and Indian perspectives. Auto emission - the growing menace. All India Seminar, 10-11 May, The Directorate of Environment, Govt. of U.P. v. 1, p. 19-28, 1994.
Saadabi, A. M. A. Effects of auto-exhaust pollution on the micro-morphology and leaf epidermal features of ornamental plants in Khartoum, Sudan. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, v. 7, n. 3, p. 270-273, 2011.
Seyyednejad, S. M.; Niknejad, M.; Yusefi, M. Study of air pollution effects on some physiology & morphology factors of Albizia lebbeck in high temperature condition in Khuzestan. Journal of Plant Sciences, v. 4, p. 122-126, 2009.
Sharma, G. K. Cuticular features as indicators of environmental pollution. Water Air and Soil Pollution, v. 8, p. 15-19, 1977.
Sharma, G. K.; Tyree, J. Geographic leaf cuticular and gross morphological variations in Liquidamber styraciflus and their probable relation to environmental pollution. Biology Gazzet., v. 134, p. 179-184, 1973.
Singh, S. K.; Rao, D. N. Evaluation of plants for their tolerance to air pollution. Proceedings of Symposium on Air Pollution Control, Indian Association for Air Pollution, New Delhi, v. 1, p. 218-224, 1983.
Singh, S. N.; Rao, D. N. Effect of cement dust pollution on soil properties and on wheat plants. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, v. 20, p. 258-267, 1986.
Stevovic, S.; Mikovilovic, V. S.; Calic-Dragosavac, D. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy. African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 9, n. 16, p. 2413-2421, 2010.
Tankha, K.; Gupta, R. K. Effect of water deficit and SO2 on total soluble protein, nitrate reductase activity and free proline content in sun flower leaf. Biology Plantarum, v. 119, p. 15-30, 1992.
Tiwari, S.; Agrawal, M.; Marshall, F. M. Evaluation of ambient air pollution impact on carrot plants at a sub urban site using open top chambers. Environment Monitoring Assessment, v. 119, p. 15-30, 2006.
Tripathi, B. D.; Prajapathi, S. K. Seasonal variation of leaf dust accumulation and pigment content in plant species exposed to urban particulates pollution. Journal of Environmental Quality, v. 37, p. 865-870, 2008.
Velikova, V.; Yardanov, I.; Edreva, A. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain - treated bean plants. Plant Science, v. 151, p. 59-66, 2000.
Woo, S. Y.; Lee, D. K.; Lee, Y. K. Net photosynthetic rate, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of Erythrina orientalis in polluted and non polluted areas. Photosynthetica, v. 45, p. 293-295, 2007.
Zarinkamar, F.; Saderi, Z.; Soleimanpour, S. Excluder strategies in response to Pb toxicity in Matricaria chamomilla. Environment and Ecology Research, v. 1, n. 1, p. 1-11, 2013. Available from: <http://www.hrpub.org/download/201307/eer.2013.010101.pdf>. Accessed in: Aug. 6, 2015.