Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences (ISSN 2358-2731)

Home Archive v. 2, n. 4 (2015) Ademakinwa


Vol. 2, No. 4, p. 253-262 - Dec. 31, 2015


Bioremediation of textile dye solutions, textile dye mixtures and textile effluents by laccase from Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) G. Arnaud (1918) (Fungi: Ascomycota)

Adedeji Nelson Ademakinwa and Femi Kayode Agboola

The environmental impact of textile waste water is detrimental to all living species in such habitat and hence there is the need to seek novel bioremediation alternative means to alleviate the effect of these dyes on aquatic life. This study investigated the potentials of Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) G. Arnaud (1918) (Fungi: Ascomycota) in bioremediation of waste water through its production of laccase. Both the fungi and its secreted laccase (crude and purified) were used to decolorize textile dyes, textile dye mixtures and textile waste-water effluent. A. pullulans laccase was able to decolorize malachite green (79.9%), allura red (57.5%), tartrazine (21.5%) and methylene blue (4.5%) after 2 h of incubation. The crude A. pullulans laccase was able to decolorize the textile waste water up to 35% after 3 h incubation and it was able to decolorize the blue + green + red dye mixtures more specifically. The purified laccase was able to specifically decolorize malachite green. The fungi was able to absorb the textile dyes when it was inoculated into a laccase culture medium containing the dyes or textile waste water effluent. There was approximately 91% decolorization of malachite green, 71% decolorization of allura red, 23% methylene blue and 38% tartazine after three day incubation A. pullulans when inoculated into the textile water effluent was able to decolorize the textile waste water effluent up to 80% after 5 days of incubation. Manganese peroxidase played additional role in the decolorization as it was detected in the crude filtrate (1.2 units/mL/min) but no lignin peroxidase activity was detected. It can be deduced that A. pullulans is a potential fungi useful for bioremediation of textile waste-water polluted environment.

Textile dyes, Bioremediation, Laccase, Aureobasidium pullulans, Textile effluents.

Full text

Airong, L.; Zhu, Y.; Xu, L.; Zhu, W.; Tian, X. Comparative study on the determination of assay for laccase of Trametes sp. African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 2, n. 8, p. 181-183, 2008.

Alcalde, M.; Ferrer, M.; Plou, F. J.; Ballesteros, A. Environmental biocatalysis: from remediation with enzymes to novel green processes. Trends in Biotechnology, v. 24, p. 281-287, 2006.

Almansa, E.; Kandelbauer, A.; Pereira, L.; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Guebitz, G. M. Influence of structure on dye degradation with Laccase Mediator Systems. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, v. 22, n. 5, p. 315-324, 2004.

Coulibaly, L.; Gournene, G.; Agathos, N. S. Utilization of fungi for biotreatment of raw wastewaters. African Journal of Biotechnology, v. 2, p. 620-630, 2003.

Forootanfar, H.; Movahednia, M. M.; Yaghmaei, S.; Tabatabaei-Sameni, M.; Rastegar, H.; Sadighi, A.; Faramarzi, M. A. Removal of chlorophenolic derivatives by soil isolated ascomycete of Paraconiothyrium variabile and studying the role of its extracellular laccase. Journal of Hazardous Material, v. 209, n. 210, p. 199-203, 2012.

Gholami-Borujeni, F.; Mahvim, A. H.; Nasseri, S.; Faramarzi, M. A.; Nabizadeh, R.; Alimohammadi, M. Enzymatic treatment and detoxification of acid orange from textile wastewater. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, v. 165, p. 1274-1284, 2011.

Gomaa, O. M.; Momtaz, O. A.; Kareem, H. A.; Riham, F. Isolation, identification, and biochemical characterization of a brown rot fungus capable of textile decolourization. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, v. 27, p. 1641-1648, 2011.

Gostinčar, C.; Ohm, R. A.; Kogej, T.; Sonjak, S.; Turk, M.; Zajc, J.; Zalar, P.; Grube, M.; Sun, H.; Han, J.; Sharma, A.; Chiniquy, J.; Ngan, C. Y.; Lipzen, A.; Barry, K.; Grigoriev, I. V.; Gunde-Cimerman, N. Genome sequencing of four Aureobasidium pullulans varieties: biotechnological potential, stress tolerance and description of new species. BMC Genomics, v. 15, 2014. Available from: <>. Accessed in: Oct. 23, 2015.

Kandelbauer, A.; Guebitz, G. M. Bioremediation for the decolourization of textile dyes. A review. Environmental Chemistry, v. 26, p. 269-288, 2005.

Kiiskinen, L. L., Viikari, K.; Kruus, K. Purification and characterisation of a novel laccase from the ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, v. 59, p. 198-204, 2002.

Maalej-Kammoun, M.; Zouari-Mechichi, H.; Belbahri, L.; Woodward, S.; Mechichi, T. Malachite green decolourization and detoxification by the laccase from a newly isolated strain of Trametes sp. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, v. 63, p. 600-606, 2009.

Saratale, R. G.; Saratale, G. D.; Chang, J. S.; Govindwar, S. P. Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes: A review. Journal of Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, v. 42, p. 138-157, 2011.

Shertate, R. S.; Thorat, P. Biotransformation of textile dyes: a bioremedial aspect of marine environment. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, v. 10, n. 5, p. 489-499, 2014. Available from: <>. Accessed in: jul. 25, 2015.

Sivakumar, R.; Rajendran, R.; Balakumar, C.; Tamilvendan, C. Isolation, screening and optimization of production medium for thermostable laccase production from Ganoderma sp. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., v. 2, n. 12, p. 7133-7141, 2010.

Telke, A. A.; Ghodake, G. S.; Kaylani, D. C.; Govindwar, S. P.; Dhanve, R. S. Biochemical characteristics of a textile dye degrading extracellular laccase from a Bacillus sp. ADR. Bioresource Technology, v. 102, n. 2, p. 1752-176, 2011.

Tien, M.; Kirk, T. Lignin peroxidase of Phanerochaete chrysosponum. Methods Enzymol., v. 161, p. 238-249, 1988.

Wariishi, H.; Khadar, V. A.; Gold, M. Manganese(II) oxidation by manganese peroxidase from the Basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium kinetic mechanism and role of chelators. The Journal of Biologic Chemistry, v. 267, n. 33, p. 23689-2369, 1992.

Zhuo, R.; Ma, L.; Fan, F.; Gong, Y.; Wan, X.; Jiang, M.; Zhang, X. and Yang, Y. Decolorization of different dyes by a newly isolated white-rot fungi strain Ganoderma sp. En3 and cloning and functional analysis of its laccase gene. Journal of Hazardous Materials, v. 192, p. 855-873, 2008.