Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 51-58 - Dec. 31, 2014
Ecological succession of zooplankton species in a temporary river in a semi arid region of Brazil
Maria Cristina Crispim, Ronilson José da Paz and Takako Watanabe
In the semi arid region of Brazil, the rivers and reservoirs are temporary, existing at times, even years, without water. The animal communities have to develop special strategies to survive when the environment is dry and to multiply, when water arrives. This study analyzed the zooplankton community upon the beginning of the rainy season in a temporary river (in remaining ponds) in Northeast Brazil. Ecological succession of species was analyzed throughout 9 months during which there was water in the river. During this period, samples were collected on days 15, 28, 37 and 43 after the start of raining and monthly afterwards. From diapause 28 rotifer species and 5 subspecies; 8 cladoceran species and 8 copepod species ecloded. The first cladoceran to appear was Moina minuta, which reached high densities, 1,234 ind.L-1, followed by Ceriodaphnia comuta, observed on day 28, and by Diaphanosoma spimilosum observed 37 days after the rain event. The first copepods to appear were Mesocyclops meridianus and Muscocyclops sp., both in the first sample (day 15). Of all the species, 21 were observed only once. Among the rotifers 10 species were observed in the first sample. This group was present in high densities e.g. Conochilus sp., with 20,403 ind.L-1, Keratella tropica with 9,392 ind.L-1 and K. lenzi with 1,149 ind.-1. Species densities were correlated with chlorophyll a, nitrate and ammonium. New ephippia production was related with total zooplankton densities, chlorophyll-a, nitrate and ammonium.
Ecological succession, zooplankton, temporary habitat, semi arid region.
Arbaciauskas, K. Life-history traits of exephippial and parthenogenetically derived daphnids: indicators of different life-history strategies. Arch. Hydrobiol. Spec. Issues Advanc. Limnol., v. 52, p. 339-358, 1998.
Barbosa, J. E. L.; Medeiros, E. S. F.; Brasil, J.; Cordeiro, R. S.; Crispim, M. C. B.; Silva, G. H. G. Aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil: limnology and management. Acta Limnol. Bras., v. 24, p. 103-118, 2012.
Chatterjee, K.; Gopal, B. Experimental study of emergence of zooplankton in temporary water-bodies in relation to dry periods. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., v. 26, p. 1309-1315, 1998.
Cimdins, P.; Klavins, M. Water quality and species diversity of inland waters in Latvia. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., v. 26, p. 1209-1211, 1998.
Crispim, M. C.; Paz, R. J.; Watanabe, T. Comparison of different Moina minuta populations dynamics ecloded from resting eggs in a semi-arid region in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Ecology, v. 5/6, p. 33-38, 2003.
Crispim, M. C.; Watanabe, T. What can dry reservoir sediments in a semi-arid region in Brazil tell us about cladocera? Hydrobiologia, v. 442, p. 101-105, 2001.
Eaton, A. D.; Clesceri, L. S.; Greenberg, A. E. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 19. ed. Washington: APHA, AWA, WEF, 1995.
Fernandes, A. P. C.; Braghin, L. S. M.; Nedli, J.; Palazzo, F.; Lansac-Tôha, F. A.; Bonecker, C. C. Passive zooplankton community in different environments of a neotropical floodplain. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences, v. 34, p. 413-418, 2012.
Ferrari, I.; Bachiorri, A.; Margaritora, F. G.; Rossi, V. Succession of cladocerans in a Northern Italian ricefield. Hydrobiologia, v. 225, p. 309-318, 1991.
Fryer, G. Diapause, a potent force in the evolution of freshwater crustaceans. Hydrobiologia, v. 320, p. 1-14, 1996.
Gilbert, J. J. Structure, development and induction of a new diapause stage in rotifers. Freshwater Biology, v. 34, p. 263-270, 1995.
Golterman, H. L.; Clymo, R. S.; Ohnstad, M. A. M. Methods for physical and chemical analysis of fresh water. 2. ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publication, 1978.
Hairston, N. G.; Cáceres, C. E. Distribution of crustacean diapause: micro- and macroevolutionary pattern and process. Hydrobiologia, v. 320, p. 27-44, 1996.
Hu, S. S.; Tessier, A. J. Seasonal succession and the strength of intra- and interspecific competition in a Daphnia assemblage. Ecology, v. 76, p. 2278-2294, 1995.
King, C. E.; Snell, T. W. Density-dependent sexual reproduction in natural populations of the rotifer Asplanchna girodi. Hydrobiologia, v. 73, p. 149-152, 1980.
Odum, E. P. Fundamentos de Ecologia. 4. ed. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1988.
Palazzo, F.; Bonecker, C. C.; Nagae, M. Y. Zooplankton dormancy forms in two environments of the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil). Acta Limnol. Bras., v. 20, p. 55-62, 2008.
Panarelli, E. A; Casanova, S. M. C.; Henry, R. The role of resting eggs in the recovery of zooplankton community in a marginal lake of the Paranapanema River (São Paulo, Brazil), after a long drought period. Acta Limnol. Bras., v. 20, p. 75-90, 2008.
Ponce-Palofox, J. T.; Aredondo-Figueroa, J. L. An analysis of factors governing metabolism of temporary tropical freshwater pond ecosystem. Verh. Intemat. Verein. Limnol., v. 26, p. 1571-1574, 1998.
Rodier, J. L'analyse de l'eau: Eaux natureile, eaux résidualle, eaux de mer. 5. ed. Paris: Dunod, 1975. v. 1.
Rossi, V.; Gandolfi, A.; Menozzi, P. Egg diapause and clonal structure in parthenogenetic populations of Heterocpris incongruens (Ostracoda). Hydrobiologia, v. 320, p. 45-54, 1996.
Serrano, L.; Toja, J. Interannual variability in the zooplankton community of a shalow temporary pond. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., v. 26, p. 1575-1581, 1998.
Urabe, J. Midsummer succession of rotifer plankton in a shallow eutrophic pond. J. Plankton Res., v. 14, p. 851-866, 1992.
Vandekerkhove, J.; Declerck, S.; Vanhove, M.; Brendonck, L.; Jeppesen, E.; Conde Porcuna, J. M.; De Meester, L. Use of ephippial morphology to assess richness of anomopods: potentials and pitfalls. J. Limnol., v. 63, Suppl. 1, p. 75-84, 2004.